Yes, it is possible.
With the Speedy Entry Tool you position the crosshair on the beat/scale step where you want the inserted note, hold down Shift, and hit the number key for the desired note value, e. g. the number 5 key for a quarter note.
With the Simple Entry Tool you can click the note in with the mouse.
Be aware, though, that the must be "room" in the measure for the note value, so that you don't "overfill" the measure.
Finale 2014d, 2014.5 & v25.3, Mac OS X 10.12.4 (Sierra), Finale user since 1996